Smelting Experiments

No.

Date

Time

Draught

Blowing rate

Charcoal total

Charcoal rate

Ore type

Ore wt

Bloom

Slag

Notes

1998

1

5/6/98

9:44

small smith's bellows

90 l/min start 275 end

50 kg

6 kg/h

FOD goethite

8 kg

yes

none free

1:1 fuel:ore

2

9/6/98

7:15

small smith's bellows

300 l/min start 230 end

45 kg

7 kg/h

FOD goethite

10 kg

yes

none free

1:1 fuel:ore

3

12/6/98

7:30

small smith's bellows

200 start (at base), 305 l/min main, 230 end (at base)

45 kg

10 kg/h falling to 6 kg/h

FOD goethite

10 kg

yes

none free

1:1 fuel:ore

4

18/6/98

9:30

small smith's bellows

210 start (at base), 320 l/min main

58 kg

6 kg/h

FOD goethite

10 kg

yes

small flows

1:1 fuel:ore

5

16/7/98

9:45

small smith's bellows

300 start (at base), 300 l/min main falling to 180 l/min

38 kg

6 kg/h falling to 3 kg/h

FOD goethite

14 kg

yes

very little free

1:1 fuel:ore

6

25/7/98

11:45

large smith's bellows

450 l/min

78 kg

10 kg/h falling to 2 kg/h

Llanharry goethite/ haematite

30.5 kg

yes

little free

1:1 fuel:ore

7

3/8/98

2:10

both smith's bellows

none

n/a

small mass

just a blowing test

8

11/8/98

12:10

both smith's bellows

170 l/min lower and 550 upper

103 kg

10 falling to 7 kg/h

Llanharry goethite/ haematite

30 kg

yes

little free, trickle tapped

1:1 fuel:ore
For slag microstructures see material from GRT's thesis.

9

20/8/98

11:40

both smith's bellows

230 l/min side and 550 front

104 kg

7 kg/h

FOD goethite

30 kg

yes

little free

1:1 fuel:ore

10

31/10/98

11:23

both smith's bellows

600 l/min front

59 kg

7 kg/h

Blaenafon siderite

30 kg

yes

some viscous tappable slag

1:4 fuel:ore ratio during charging

1999

11

13/3/99

7:16

large smith's bellows

550 l/min side

59 kg (15 recoverable)

7 kg/h

FOD ochre

20 kg

yes

none tapped

1:4 fuel:ore

12

15/3/99

8:10

large smith's bellows (small 0:46-4:02)

600 l/min side (200 0:46-4:02)

80 kg (?15 recoverable)

10 kg/h (2 0:46-4:02)

FOD ochre

20 kg

yes

none tapped

1:4 fuel:ore

13

17/3/99

6:40

large smith's bellows

600 l/min side

57 kg (?15 recoverable)

8.5 kg/h

FOD ochre

30 kg

poor

none tapped

1:4 fuel:ore

14

19/3/99

6:15

large smith's bellows

600 l/min side

66 kg (?15 recoverable)

8 kg/h

FOD ochre

40 kg

very poor

flowed into tap arch

1:4 fuel:ore, open tap arch

15

21/3/99

7:48

large smith's bellows

600 l/min side

91 kg

8 kg/h

FOD ochre

40 kg

reasonable

several kg tapped

1:2 fuel:ore, open tap arch

16

31/5/99

9:00

large smith's bellows

600 l/min side

86 kg

8 kg/h

FOD ochre

22 kg

reasonable

several kg tapped

1:1 fuel:ore, open tap arch

17

25/7/99

10:03

mockup single bellows

? l/min side

103 kg

11 - 8 kg/h

Blaenafon siderite

25 kg

good 2.1 kg

several kg tapped

1:1 fuel:ore, open tap arch

2000

18

19/3/00

8:55

single action bellows

? l/min side

66 kg

6.3 kg/h

Blaenafon siderite

18 kg

poor

several kg tapped

1:1 fuel:ore, open tap arch

19

19/3/00

9:18

single action bellows

? l/min side

70 kg

6.7 kg/h

Blaenafon siderite

20 kg

none!

many kg tapped

1:1 fuel:ore, open tap arch

2002

20

13/3/02

6:47

single action bellows

?600 l/min side

66 kg

10 kg/h

Sishen haematite

24 kg

none

none tapped

1:1 fuel:ore, open tap arch

21

15/3/02

7:00 to start of burn-down

single action bellows

?600 l/min side

84 kg

11.3 kg/h

Sishen haematite

18 kg

none!

little tapped

2:1 fuel:ore, open tap arch

2003

22

13/3/03

6:20

single action bellows and fan blower

?500 l/min side

60 kg

6.7 kg/h

Sishen haematite

18 kg

none

none tapped

1:1 fuel:ore, closed tap arch

23

15/3/03

6:15 incomplete burn down

hired bouncy castle blower

?1000 l/min side

95 kg

15.2 kg/h

Sishen haematite

25.2kg

good 6kg

several kg tapped and recycled

1:1 fuel:ore, closed tap arch

24

19/7/03

6:40

hired bouncy castle blower

?1000 l/min side

98 kg

14.8 kg/h

Sishen haematite

19.6 kg

poor: 5kg total mass, of which 3kg?

slag too viscous to tap

1:1 fuel:ore, closed tap arch, undertaken in brick and clay temporary furnace

25

14/11/03

8:30

bouncy castle blower

?700 l/min side

73 kg

10 kg/h

Sishen haematite

19.6 kg

poor

slag mainly too viscous to tap

1:1 fuel:ore, closed tap arch

2004

26

17/03/04

8:06

bouncy castle blower

?1000 l/min side

84 kg

13.7 kg/h

Sishen haematite

22.4 kg

good 4.8kg

good tapped flows

1:1 fuel:ore, closed tap arch, tapped slag recycled

27

20/03/04

5:30

bouncy castle blower

?1000 l/min side

94 kg

13 kg/h

Sishen haematite

19.8 kg

good 4.6kg

approx. 9kg of flowing slag

1:1 fuel:ore, closed tap arch, tapped slag not recycled

2007

28

22/07/07

4:10

bouncy castle blower

more than 1500 l/min?

88 kg

35 kg/hr falling to 14 kg/h

Sishen haematite

39 kg

no bloom

no fluid slag

1:1 fuel:ore, closed tap arch, undertaken in brick and clay temporary furnace. Wide tuyere.

29

29/09/07

7:20

single action bellows

?300 l/min side

25.5 kg

5 kg/h falling to 4 kg/h

Sishen haematite

11.8 kg

no bloom

no fluid slag

1:1 fuel:ore, closed tap arch, undertaken in "Coated Tyle" temporary furnace

2010

30

8/07/10

5:20

large smith's bellows

?600 l/min side

55.0 kg

10 kg/h

Sishen haematite

20.0 kg

3kg low-medium C steel

little fluid slag

1:1 fuel:ore, closed tap arch, undertaken in clay-built temporary furnace 0.25m diameter